State Choices to Promote Access
- 12 states sets the income eligibility limit for child care subsidies at or above 200% FPL 1
- 1 state 2
- 45 states provides families with at least 12 months of continuous eligibility for child care subsidies [FY 2016]3
- 23 states supplements Early Head Start 4
- 45 states funds a pre-kindergarten program and/or supplements Head Start [FY 2016]5
- 13 states requires districts to offer full day kindergarten 6
State Choices to Promote Quality
- 7 states requires one adult for every four 18-month-olds, and a maximum class size of eight in child care centers 7
- 26 states allocates state or federal funds for a network of infant/toddler specialists that provide assistance to child care providers 8
- 47 states has early learning standards or developmental guidelines for infants and toddlers 9
- 32 states has an infant/toddler credential or certificate 10
- 23 states requires that infants and toddlers in child care centers be assigned a consistent primary caregiver 11
- 15 states requires one adult for every ten 4-year-olds, and a maximum class size of 20 in child care centers 7
- 40 states has implemented a statewide Quality Rating Improvement System (QRIS) 12
- 8 states requires one teacher for every 18 students in kindergarten classrooms 13
- 44 states has adopted Common Core Standards 14
- 4 states has comprehensive, free-standing standards for social emotional learning at the K-12 level 15
Data Notes and Sources
Last Updated: May 13, 2015
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- Schulman, K., & Blank, H. (2017). Persistent Gaps: State Child Care Assistance Policies 2017. National Women's Law Center. https://nwlc.org (accessed November 2, 2017). Parents at 150% FPL ineligible for monthly child care copayments in Maryland.
- Schulman, Karen; Blank, Helen. 2014. Turning the Corner: State Child Care Assistance Policies 2014. National Women's Law Center. http://www.nwlc.org (accessed March 3, 2015).
- Minton, S., Blatt, L., Tran, V., Stevens, K., & Giannarelli, L. (2017). The CCDF Policies Database Book of Tables: Key Cross-State Variations in CCDF Policies as of October 1, 2016. OPRE Report 2017-105. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Https://www.acf.hhs.gov (accessed February 22, 2018).
- Colvard, Jamie; Schmit, Stephanie, Zero to Three and CLASP. (2012). Expanding Access to Early Head Start: State Initiatives for Infants and Toddlers at Risk. http://www.clasp.org (accessed August 15, 2013).
- Barnett, W. S., Friedman-Krauss, A. H., Weisenfeld, G. G., Horowitz, M., Kasmin, R., & Squires, J. H. (2017). The State of Preschool 2016: State Preschool Yearbook. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research. http://nieer.org (accessed December 19, 2017).
- Parker, E., Diffey, L., & Atchison, B. (2016). Full-day kindergarten: A look across the states. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. http://www.ecs.org (accessed June 23, 2017).
- National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies. (2013). We Can Do Better: Child Care Aware of America's Ranking of State Child Care Center Regulations and Oversight. http://usa.childcareaware.org (accessed August 14, 2013).
- Schmit, S., Matthews, H., CLASP. (2013). Better for Babies: A Study of State Infant and Toddler Child Care Policies. http://www.clasp.org (accessed April 2, 2014).
- Administration for Children & Families, National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance. (2017). State Early Learning and Developmental Guidelines. https://childcareta.acf.hhs.gov (accessed December 19, 2017).
- Administration for Children & Families, National Center on Early Childhood Development, Teaching, and Learning. (2018). State/Territory Infant/Toddler Credential Overview, February 2018. Obtained data from staff at ZERO TO THREE.
- National Center on Child Care Quality Improvement & National Association for Regulatory Administration. (2015). Trends in child care center licensing regulations and policies for 2014. (Research Brief #1 ) (No. 314). Fairfax, VA: National Center on Early Childhood Quality Assurance. Https://childcareta.acf.hhs.gov (accessed June 23, 2017).
- QRIS National Learning Network. (2017). Current Status of QRIS in the States map. http://qrisnetwork.org (accessed February 7, 2017).
- Education Commission of the States. (2013). Early Learning: Kindergarten Online Database. http://ecs.force.com (accessed April 7, 2014).
- Achieve. (2015). Closing the Expectations Gap: 2013 Annual Report on the Alignment of State K-12 Policies and Practice with the Demands of College and Careers. http://www.achieve.org (accessed March 24, 2015).
- The Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (2017). K-12 Learning Goals for SEL in all 50 States. https://casel.org (accessed June 23, 2017).