Adolescent State Profiles Glossary
Above Low Income: Families and children are defined as above low income if the family income is at or above twice the federal poverty threshold (see Poor).
American Indian: Children whose parent reported their race as American Indian or Alaskan Native and their ethnicity as non-Hispanic. Parents could choose more than one race for their child. Children who were American Indian or Alaskan Native and another race were not counted as American Indian.
Asian: Children whose parent reported their race as Asian, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander and their ethnicity as non-Hispanic. Parents could choose more than one race for their child. Children who were Asian and another race were not counted as Asian.
Black: Children whose parents reported their race as black and their ethnicity as non-Hispanic. Parents could choose more than one race for their child. Children who were black and another race were not counted as black.
Break the Cycle: Break the Cycle is a leading national nonprofit working to end teen dating violence. Part of their work focuses on advocating for dating violence policies that empower and are responsive to the needs of adolescents.
Chafee Funds: The John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Program (CFCIP) is a federally funded, statewide independent living program that is county administered. It offers assistance to help current and former foster care youths achieve self-sufficiency. Grants are offered to states and tribes who submit a plan to assist youth in a wide variety of areas designed to support a successful transition to adulthood. The state is responsible for training, technical assistance, program and policy development, monitoring, and administration of the program and its funds. Activities and programs include, but are not limited to, help with education, employment, financial management, housing, emotional support and assured connections to caring adults for older youth in foster care. The program is intended to serve youth who are likely to remain in foster care until age 18, youth who, after attaining 16 years of age, have left foster care for kinship guardianship or adoption, and young adults ages 18-21 who have "aged out" of the foster care system.1
City: A central city, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.
Compact Rate: The Compact Rate is a four-year, adjusted cohort graduation rate used to determine the percentage of on-time high school graduates (those receiving diplomas) from a given four-year student cohort. It is widely considered a high-quality, practical graduation rate capable of improving consistency and accuracy among statewide reporting systems.2
Graduation rate = [on-time graduates in year x] ÷ [(first-time entering ninth graders in year x – 4) + (transfers in) – (transfers out)].
CHIP or SCHIP: The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) is a program administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides matching funds to states for health insurance to families with children. The program was designed with the intent to cover uninsured children in families with incomes that are modest but too high to qualify for Medicaid. States are given flexibility in designing their eligibility requirements and policies within broad federal guidelines.3
EPSDT: Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment is the child health component of Medicaid. It's required in every state and is designed to improve the health of low-income children by financing appropriate and necessary pediatric services.4
Enrolled/Employed Status: Children aged 16–18 who report being enrolled in high school, college, or university or who are employed (or in the Armed Forces) are considered to be enrolled or employed. Federal Poverty Level (FPL): The Federal Poverty Level is the federal poverty guideline issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It varies by family size and is based on prices in effect the previous year. The federal poverty guidelines are used for administrative purposes, such as determining financial eligibility for benefit programs. Research shows that families not only need income equal to about twice the poverty level to meet basic needs, but families with incomes up to 200 percent of the poverty level experience many of the same economic hardships as families who are officially poor. NCCP uses a measure of “low-income,” which is 200 percent of the current poverty threshold as a proxy for what it takes to make ends meet.
Health Insurance Coverage: Health insurance coverage is defined according to the Census Bureau classification scheme. Children covered by private health insurance include those covered by a plan provided through an employer or a union or purchased by an individual from a private company. Public health insurance coverage includes such federal programs as Medicare, Medicaid, and military health care; the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP); and individual state health plans. Children who are insured can have more than one type of coverage. Children are considered to be insured if they are covered by any type of health insurance for part or all of the previous calendar year. Children are considered “uninsured” if, for the entire year, they were not covered by any type of health insurance.
Hispanic: Children whose parents reported their ethnicity as Hispanic, regardless of reported race.
Near Poor: Families and children are defined as near poor if the family income is between 100 and 200 percent of the federal poverty threshold (see Poor).
Poor: Families and children are defined as poor if family income is below the federal poverty threshold. The federal poverty level for a family of four with two children was $22,050 in 2009, $21,200 in 2008, and $20,650 in 2007.
Race/Ethnicity: Parents could report children’s race as one or more of the following: “White,” “Black,” “American Indian or Alaskan Native,” or “Asian and/or Hawaiian/Pacific Islander.” In a separate question, parents could report whether their children were of Hispanic ethnicity. For the data reported, children who were reported to be of Hispanic ethnicity were categorized as Hispanic, regardless of their reported race. Children who were reported to be of more than one race were not included in the “White,” “Black,” “Asian,” or “American Indian” categories.
Rural: An area that is not in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.
SBHC: School-Based Health Centers bring the doctor's office to the school so students avoid health-related absences and get support to succeed in the classroom. SBHCs may vary based on community need and resources. Secondary Enforcement: Police officers must have a separate reason to pull over a driver, such as speeding or some other traffic or mechanical violation, before they can slap down a citation for a secondary enforcement offense.
Social and Emotional Learning: Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) is a process for helping individuals develop the fundamental skills for life effectiveness. SEL teaches the skills we all need to handle ourselves, our relationships, and our work, effectively and ethically. These skills include recognizing and managing our emotions, developing caring and concern for others, establishing positive relationships, making responsible decisions, and handling challenging situations constructively and ethically. They are the skills that allow us to calm ourselves when angry, make friends, resolve conflicts respectfully, and make ethical and safe choices.5
Suburban: Areas contained in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), excluding central cities. An MSA is defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as a group of communities that are socially and economically integrated with an adjacent urbanized area. The urbanized area is defined as the central city, while the surrounding areas are defined as the suburbs.
White: Children whose parents reported their race as white and their ethnicity as non-Hispanic. Parents could choose more than one race for their child. Children who were white and another race were not counted as white.
1. Excerpted from The John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. Accessed Nov. 12, 2010, from www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/programs_fund/state_tribal/jh_chafee.htm.
2. Excerpted from the National Governors Association Compact Rate: A Comprehensive Approach to Improved Accuracy and Consistency in High School Graduation Rates. Accessed July 15, 2010 , from ritter.tea.state.tx.us/research/pdfs/NGA_compact_rate_policy_brief.pdf.
4. Excerpted from EPSDT and Title V Collaboration to Improve Child Health. Human Resources and Services Administration website, US Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed July 15, 2010, from www.hrsa.gov/epsdt/.
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