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Glossary E - L

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Early and Periodic Screening, and Diagnostic Treatment (EPSDT) Medicaid’s child health component, which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services states "has been shaped to fit the standards of pediatric care and to meet the special physical, emotional, and developmental needs of low-income children."
early childhood In public health and child development contexts, generally the developmental stage from birth to 5 or birth to 6. Some systems of classification may include children through age 8.
Early Intervention Program (EIP) A national program intended to provide support for infants and toddlers with disabilities, and their families, first created by Congress under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) [ANCHOR]. EIPs are administered at the state level and may include family education, home visits, and support, nursing services, nutrition services social work services, vision services, occupational and physical therapy, speech pathology and audiology, and other services for children under 3, and their families.
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) The federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is the nation’s largest cash program directed at low-income families. It reduces the amount of income tax low- to moderate-income working families are required to pay, and provides a wage supplement to some families. One of the most important features of the federal EITC is that it is refundable. This means that if the amount of the credit exceeds the amount the family owes in federal income taxes, the family receives the difference as a cash payment. By definition, only families with earnings are eligible for the EITC. The U.S. General Accounting Office estimates that about 86 percent of eligible households with children claim the federal EITC, although research suggests that filing rates may be significantly lower among eligible former welfare recipients. More information is available at NCCP's EITC state profile.
EBD Emotional behavioral disorder.
EBPs Evidence-based practices.
ED Emotional disturbances.
EIP Early Intervention Program.
EITC Earned Income Tax Credit. The federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is the nation’s largest cash program directed at low-income families. It reduces the amount of income tax low- to moderate-income working families are required to pay, and provides a wage supplement to some families. One of the most important features of the federal EITC is that it is refundable. This means that if the amount of the credit exceeds the amount the family owes in federal income taxes, the family receives the difference as a cash payment. By definition, only families with earnings are eligible for the EITC. The U.S. General Accounting Office estimates that about 86 percent of eligible households with children claim the federal EITC, although research suggests that filing rates may be significantly lower among eligible former welfare recipients. More information is available at NCCP's EITC state profile.
EPSDT Early and Periodic Screening, and Diagnostic Treatment.
evidence-based practices (EBPs) Practices and approaches informed by empirically valid research.
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) The federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), enacted in 1993, entitles eligible employees to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected family or medical leave in any 12 month period. Family leave may be taken for the birth and care of a newborn child; for the adoption or foster care placement of a child; or to care for an immediate family member (spouse, child, or parent) with a serious health condition. Medical leave may be taken when the employee is unable to work because of a serious health condition. Employers are required to continue providing health insurance for employees who received it prior to the leave, and employees are entitled to keep other benefits accrued prior to the leave. Some states have chosen to extend the federal FMLA protections for working families by extending eligibility to additional workers and/or by extending the length of allowed leave. In addition, while the federal law guarantees only unpaid leave, six states now offer partial wage replacement for medical or family leave, and more than half the states have passed laws allowing employees to use their sick leave to care for sick family members, though in most cases these laws apply only to public sector employers. More information on the FMLA is available in the report Paid Leave in the States .
family leave The concept of taking time off from employment in order to care for a family member during a major life event, including a serious illness or the birth, adoption, or foster placement of a child. Family leave may be paid, meaning that the person taking time off still receives income, or unpaid, meaning that income stops until the person returns to work. In the United States, unpaid family leave is supported by the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).
family-centered care, family-based care Patient- and family-centered care is an innovative approach to the planning, delivery, and evaluation of health care that is grounded in mutually beneficial partnerships among health care patients, families, and providers.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA or the Buckley Amendment) is a United States federal law whose regulations provide that educational agencies and institutions that receive funding under a program administered by the U. S. Department of Education must provide students with access to their education records, an opportunity to seek to have the records amended, and some control over the disclosure of information from the records. With several exceptions, schools must have a student's consent prior to the disclosure of education records. Examples of situations affected by FERPA include school employees divulging information to someone other than a child's guardians about a child's grades or behavior, and school work posted on a bulletin board with a grade.
federal poverty level (FPL) Synonymous with the federal poverty measure ($10,830 for one adult and $22,050 for a family of four in 2009). The current poverty measure was established in the 1960s and is now widely acknowledged to be flawed. It was based on research indicating that families spent about one-third of their incomes on food – the official poverty level was set by multiplying food costs by three. Since then, the figures have been updated annually for inflation but have otherwise remained unchanged.
federal poverty measure Synonymous with the federal poverty level ($10,830 for one adult and $22,050 for a family of four in 2009). The current poverty measure was established in the 1960s and is now widely acknowledged to be flawed It was based on research indicating that families spent about one-third of their incomes on food – the official poverty level was set by multiplying food costs by three. Since then, the figures have been updated annually for inflation but have otherwise remained unchanged.
FERPA Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.
FMLA Family and Medical Leave Act. The federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), enacted in 1993, entitles eligible employees to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected family or medical leave in any 12 month period. Family leave may be taken for the birth and care of a newborn child; for the adoption or foster care placement of a child; or to care for an immediate family member (spouse, child, or parent) with a serious health condition. Medical leave may be taken when the employee is unable to work because of a serious health condition. Employers are required to continue providing health insurance for employees who received it prior to the leave, and employees are entitled to keep other benefits accrued prior to the leave. Some states have chosen to extend the federal FMLA protections for working families by extending eligibility to additional workers and/or by extending the length of allowed leave. In addition, while the federal law guarantees only unpaid leave, six states now offer partial wage replacement for medical or family leave, and more than half the states have passed laws allowing employees to use their sick leave to care for sick family members, though in most cases these laws apply only to public sector employers. More information on the FMLA is available in the report Paid Leave in the States .
Food stamps The federal Food Stamp Program was replaced by the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). SNAP is a federal-assistance program that provides assistance to low- and no-income people living in the United States. Benefits are distributed at the state level, but the program is administered through the U.S. Department of Agriculture. SNAP benefits are now distributed using cards, but for most of its history the program had actually used paper denominational stamps/coupons worth US$1, US$5, and US$10. These stamps could be used to purchase any prepackaged edible foods regardless of nutritional value (for example soft drinks and confectionery could be purchased on food stamps). In the late 1990s, the food-stamp program was revamped and actual stamps were phased out in favor of a specialized debit-card system known as Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) provided by private contractors. Many states merged the use of the EBT card for public-assistance welfare programs as well. The successful replacement over time of all paper food stamps by EBT cards enabled the renaming of the Food Stamp Program to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program by October 2008, and to updated all references in federal law from "stamp" or "coupon" to "card" or "EBT." Recipients must have near-poverty incomes to qualify for benefits.
FPL Federal poverty level.
functional behavioral assessment A problem-solving process for addressing child behavior that relies on a variety of techniques and strategies to identify the purposes of specific behavior and to help select appropriate interventions to directly address the problem behavior.
group home In the mental and behavioral health context, group homes are small, residential facilities located within a community and designed to serve children or adults.
home visiting Content forthcoming.
IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
IEP Individual Education Plan.
IFSP Individualized family service plan.
Individual Education Plan (IEP) When a child receives special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) [ANCHOR], he or she must have an IEP. An IEP is a written document listing, among other things, the special educational services that a child will receive. The IEP is developed by a team that includes the child's parents and school staff.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to eligible infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities. Infants and toddlers with disabilities (birth to age 2) and, their families receive early intervention services under IDEA Part C. Children and youth (ages 3 to 21) receive special education and related services under IDEA Part B.
low income, low-income An individual or family are classified as low-income if they make less than twice the federal poverty line ($44,100 for a family of four in 2009). Research suggests that, on average, families need at least this level of income to afford basic necessities of life, such as food, housing, childcare, transportation, and health insurance.

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